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The DNS Hierarchy

The DNS Hierarchy

DNS is a directory of resource records organized as a tree resource record maps a name to data

klostname to IP address, domain to authoritative nameserver etc.

A domain is a collection of records in the same DNS subtree The root domain consists ol the whole DNS tree

The domain com consists only of names that end in .com hedhat .com is a subdomain of .com which in turn is a subdomain of

Ths part of a domain served by a particular nameserver is called the zone The nameserver is authoritative tor these names

The zone may cover an entire domain, or selected subdomains may be delegated to be served out as Separate zones by other nameservers

The fONOWing definitions are essential to understanding how DNS works Namesen any network device that is running a DNS server.

Resource Record an entry in a zone on the nameserver that maps one thing to anotherie. hostname to Ip address

Domain: a collection of resource records which end in a common name and represent an entire subtree of the DNS name space example .com The root domain includes the whole one component. A generic TLD (gTLD) was originally organized by theme, and some include .com .net and so on. A country code TLD (ccTLD) is organized on a national basis, and some include .uk .cn .tv and so on.

Subdomain: a domain that is a subtree of another domain. Usually used when discussing the relationship of two domains to each System
host by including all parent domains the path up the DNS tree from the host to the root:

mail  dallas internal  example .com A Linux administrator might think of this as analogous to an absolute path to a file in the file system while a short hostname (mail) would be like a relative path

Zone: the part of a domain that a particular server is directly responsible, or authoritative for This may be an entire domain or some or all of its subdomains may be delegated to another nameserver or nameservers.

Hoot nameserver: one of the nameservers responsible for the root zone. These nameservers then delegate all the TLDs to nameservers responsible for those domains zones. The root zone is managed by the DNS Root Server System.

Master and slave nameservers a master nameserver is one that is the administrative source ot resourCe records for a given domain that it manages. A slave nameserver is a backup that gets its copy of the 20"9 automatically from the master server. An older slightly more confusing terminology sometimes used is primary secondary nameserver

Caching on y nameserver: a caching nameserver is used by clients to look up information from other. authoritative, nameservers. lt caches the results of lookups so they queries for the same information

may be handled more quickly. Responses from the can nameserver IS not authoritative for any zone. che are non

Referral when a nameserver is looking for an answ  nameserver rather than an answer. A referral is a p31 Frigizgeiaginmgmm a remme responsibility for the domain in question. For example a Query to a root namesewgft een de egated

would result in a referral to a name server authoritative for .com That server might a referral pointing to a nameserver authoritative for  redhat . com which might finauy generational

authoritative answer


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