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Showing posts from December, 2019

Try winter cough cough Home remedies will run away from this country prescription without any medication Your cold cough

Try winter cough cough Home remedies will run away from this country prescription without any medication Your cold cough

 Friendly winter cough is a common problem in the winter season which is applicable to all people and if the winter season is going on right now then we are ten persons, three persons have this disease.
 And if we get a lot of colds or coughs this season, if we try to take medicine instead of a doctor, this can be relieved.

Let's have friends today what we know about this country remedy

The easiest and easiest way

 Put some salt in warm water and rinse with water. Relieves throat problems as well as drinking hot drinks like tea and coffee and yes, drinking warm water also helps.

 To relieve cold soreness and body aches or headaches
 Add turmeric powder ginger powder and a teaspoon of honey in a glass of warm water. This will provide a lot of relief.

 Native remedy for cold

 Friends find a steam machine in the market and if you want to buy a steam machine, boil hot water …

The DNS Hierarchy

The DNS Hierarchy

DNS is a directory of resource records organized as a tree resource record maps a name to data

klostname to IP address, domain to authoritative nameserver etc.

A domain is a collection of records in the same DNS subtree The root domain consists ol the whole DNS tree

The domain com consists only of names that end in .com hedhat .com is a subdomain of .com which in turn is a subdomain of

Ths part of a domain served by a particular nameserver is called the zone The nameserver is authoritative tor these names

The zone may cover an entire domain, or selected subdomains may be delegated to be served out as Separate zones by other nameservers

The fONOWing definitions are essential to understanding how DNS works Namesen any network device that is running a DNS server.

Resource Record an entry in a zone on the nameserver that maps one thing to anotherie. hostname to Ip address

Domain: a collection of resource records which end in a common name and represent an entire subtree of the DN…

If you are eating yogurt or not eating then start now because yogurt is very beneficial for our body.

If you are eating yogurt or not eating then start now because yogurt is very beneficial for our body.

 Yogurt contains many nutrients, not only because of the high levels of calcium Aryan potassium and mineral in which nutrients are rich in nutrients, but it also helps keep the body in balance, keeping the skin healthy as well as our skin.  Also makes digestive power healthy and strong. Here is a native antibiotic that helps to prevent harmful bacteria in the human body.  Also destroy

 So let's see today whether we benefit or not

 The right time to eat yogurt

 If we do not eat before noon, we benefit greatly, and if we have supper during the night, there are concerns about illnesses such as cold cough.

 In which season of yogurt eating benefits

 Generally speaking, friends in monsoon and summer yogurt can be very beneficial for our body. In winter, eating yogurt also causes some damage to our body, as it increases the chances of troubles in the muscles and veins as well as feeling weak …

These healthy tips on how to stay healthy in winter

These healthy tips on how to stay healthy in winter

 Eating different types of fruits in the winter improves the body's health by eating figs in winter strengthens bones

 Keeping body healthy in winter season should be taken care of different fresh vegetables and fruits in winter maintains health in our body.
 Winter fruits provide essential nutrients to our body by eating the fruits of winter benefits the body's mushroom tissues.

 Friends today we know what fruits should be eaten in the winter to keep our bodies healthy and which fruits to eat

 By eating bananas every morning from 11 to 12 pm, blood pressure is in control of our body and also keeps the heart healthy.

 The dark circles under the eyes on our face become darker. If we eat apples in winter, it provides a great deal of relief, as well as eating apples every day, we can control our weight and keep skin cancer away.

 Half a cup of cranberries contains about 25 calories if needed.  Consuming it daily i…

Lab 5.1: Configuring a Basic IPv4 Firewall

Lab 5.1: Configuring a Basic IPv4 Firewall

A host servcrIO requires protection by packet filtering.

A set of IPv4 packet filtering rules in a custom chain called
class rules, allowing icmp and cups packets, state fuel
(ESTABLISHED,RELATED) replies, NEW packets connecting to sshd er packets will
and packets arriving on the loopback lo interface. All 0th be Logged before being REJECTed with icmp host prohibited

1. If necessary, connect to serverX as student and escalate your pnwlegcs t0 root with su

2. Ensure that the firewall is stopped, processing no rules.

3. Create a custom chain called class rules and insert a rule at the top of INPUT that jumps all packets to it. Save the firewall configuration when you are done.

4. Populate the class rules chain by editing etc, sys config, ip tables directly. Add rules that do the following

ACCEPT all traffic arriving on the loopback interface (10)
ACCEPT all packets that use the icmp protocol
ACCEPT all packets destined for…

Disabling IPv6 and IPv6 and ip6tables

IPv6 and ip6tables

pstables creates Netfilter rules for IPv6 packets
which are not affected by ip tables rules!

Provided by the ip tables ipv6 package
Rules stored in etc sys config ip6tab 1es
Does not support nat table
System config securitylevel creates IPv4 and IPv6 rules.

Fiitering va Traffic

While support for IP version 6 (IPv6) comes standard with most modern operating systems, the majority of the world's networks still use the older IP version 4 (IPv4) protocol by default. However, if your system is accessible e by an IPv6 address it is important to remember that since IPv4 and IPv6 are very different

protocos, IPv4 based security mechanisms may need to be supplemented with IPv6 based solutions to keep your system safe.

One very important example of such a mechanism is ip tables, which specifically filters IPv4 traffic, not IPv6. Any ip tables rules that do not refer to specific interfaces or MAC addresses will effectively ignore va traffic, even with a chain policy of DROP. A second…

Connection tracking

Connection tracking

Provides inspection of packet's "state"
A packet can be tested in a specific context

The term connection could be thought to indicate that it only relates to TOP traffic, because TCP is connection based. However this is not the case, and the connection tracking capability also applies to (connectioniess) UDP traffic. Instead of thinking in terms of connections (because it suggests TCP style

notions of what constitutes a connection, it is more appropriate to think in terms of exchanges of packets, Next filter understands how exchanges are related to the state, or relationship of each packet to a given session.

When connection tracking is not employed, it is usually necessary to open up high ports fairly indiscriminately to provide for return packets. With connection tracking, this approach can be avoided.

Although connection tracking makes the kernel work harder, it can often be faster overall because after a

connection is established, the chain traversal the…

Additional Chain Operations and Rules: General Considerations

Additional Chain Operations

Assign chain policy (P CHAIN TARGET)

ACCEPT (default a built in target)
DROP (a built in target)
REJECT (not permitted, an extension target)

Flush all rules of a chain (F)
Does not flush the policy

Zero byte and packet counters Z CHAIN
 Useful for monitoring chain statistics or troubleshooting

Manage custom chains N, X
N Your Cha1n Name (adds Chain)
X Your Chain Name (deletes Chain)

Use P to change the default TARGET, or policy of a chain. The default installed policy is ACCEPT. Only

built-in targets (DROP and ACCEPT) may be a chain policy due to efficiency. While it is desirable to inform a client process that its connection is refused (REJECT), a new packet must be generated and routed to

the client. F is used to flush, or remove all rules from a chain. This does not reset the chain policy.

Use 2 to "zero" or set the byte and packet counters for all rules of a chain to zero (0) This is useful in the systematic collection, and statistical analysis of a rule'…

Common Match Criteria and Common Match Criteria conhnued

Common Match Criteria 

IP address or network

Network interface
i lo
0 eth1

Criteria can be inverted with
i etho  s

Most rules in the filter table involve allowing or denying packets based on their source or destination. Below are examples of options that can be used to create such rules.

A packet‘s source or destination can be specified with s or d, respectively. The option should be followed by an IP address or lP Net mask combination or hostname. Net masks can use CIDR ( or

VLSN (,255.255.0) notation. Using a hostname is not recommended because it will just be translated into an IP when the rule is stored anyway.

The following example would allow packets from any address on the 192.168.0.X network through the firewall.

Packets can also be matched based on the physical network interface they are arriving on or leaving through This is done with the i and -0 options, respectively. The following command would only allow packet…

Examining and Breaking the NTP Service and Switching SELinux Modes

LaV 4.1: Examining and Breaking the NTP Service 

1.  Before breaking anything, it would be a good idea to see what NTP looks like when it is working properly. The ntpq c pe command displays the list of peer machines the local NTP server is synchronizing with. Login as root on your local workstation, stationX. example. com, and execute ntpq to confirm NTP 18 working. Your output

should look similar to the following:

instructor.exam LOCAL(0) 11 u 719 1024 377 4.360 8.931 0.832

2. Check to see if the NTP server, ntpd, is a SELinux protected service. Use ps to find out if it is. What command options did you use?

3. Break NTP by restoring a backup copy of its configuration file etc ntp conf First, copy it to root's home directory without providing any options to the cp command. Once you verify there is a backup copy, remove the original configuration file in etc. To recover from this mishap, move (don't copy) the backup into etc  ntp . conf and restart the ntpd service.

Are there any vis…